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Tuberculosis (TB)

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Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can target other organs. TB spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Symptoms include persistent cough, fever, and weight loss. TB is curable with antibiotics, but drug-resistant forms pose challenges.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health concern caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It predominantly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also impact other organs (extrapulmonary TB). TB is transmitted through the air when an infected person expels respiratory droplets via coughing, sneezing, or talking, making close contact a common mode of transmission.

TB presents in two forms: latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB disease. In LTBI, the bacteria are present but do not cause symptoms or spread to others. However, they can become active in the future. Active TB disease results in symptoms such as a persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fever, night sweats, and unintended weight loss.

TB is curable through appropriate treatment with a combination of antibiotics over several months. Timely diagnosis and consistent medication are crucial to prevent drug resistance, a significant challenge in TB management. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are forms of the disease resistant to multiple antibiotics, making treatment more complex and expensive.

Efforts to combat TB include widespread vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, early diagnosis through sputum tests and chest X-rays, and improved access to treatment. Organizations and governments worldwide work towards reducing TB incidence, raising awareness, and enhancing healthcare systems to control this infectious disease, aiming for a TB-free future.

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